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Sir W. JARDINE, Bart.,F.L.S.— P. J. SELBY,Esq.,F.L.S., 


' J. H. BALFOUR, M.D., Reg. Prof. Bot. Glasg., 







s. highley; 

siMPKiN AND Marshall; 



CURRY, Dublin: and asher, Berlin. 


F L 





I. Description of two new species of Kangaroos from Western Au- 
stralia. By John Gould!^ Esq., F.L.S., &c ^.. I 

If. Contributions to Structural Botany. By W. Hughes Willshire, 
M.D,, M.B.S., Lecturer on Botany at Charing Cross Hospital ...• 3 

. III. Note on the appearance of Clouds of Diptera. By Robert Pat- 
terson, Esq., Member of the Nat. Hist. Soc. Belfast, &c 6 

IV. On the spongeous origin of Moss Agates and other siliceous 
bodies. By J. S. Bowerbank, Esq., F.G.S., &c. (With three Plates.) 9 

V. Note of species obtained by deep dredging near Sana I^'^nd, off 
the Mull of Can tire. By George C. Hyndman, Esq 1!? 


VI. Results of deep dredging off the Mull of Galloway, by Captain 
Beechey, R.N. Drawn up by Wm. Thompson, Esq., Vice-Pres. Nat. 
Hist. Society of Belfast .' 21 

VII. On a new British species oi Alcliemilla. By Charles C. Ba- 
bington, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c 24 

VIIL Contributions to the Ichthyology of Australia. By John 
Richardson, M.D., F.R.S., &c.. Inspector of Hospitals, Haslar. (Con- 
tinued.) 25 

IX. Observations on the genera Zygneina^ Tyndaridea^ and Mou- 
(jeotia^ with descriptions of new Species. By Arthur Hill Hassall, 
Esq., M.R.C.S.L., Corresponding Member of the Dublin Natural Hi- 


story Society ..•••• 34 

X. Excerpta Zoologica, or abridged Extracts from Foreign Journals. 

By Dr. Felix von BiERENSPRUNG • 47 

XI. The Birds of Ireland. By Wm. Thompson, Esq., Vice-Pres. 
Nat. Hist. Society of Belfast. {Continued.) c»f., 50 

XII. Information respecting Scientific Travellers • 59 

New BooJcs: — Ninth Annual Report of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic 

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Lymph-globules of Birds; Scarahts castaneus ; Arctic Tern ; Galium 

cruciatum] On a new species oi Lagomys inliabiting Nepal, by B. 
H, Hodgson, Esq,, Resident at the Court of Nepal j Notice of a new 


form of the Glaucopintr^ or Rasorial Crows, inhabiting the North- 
ern region of Nepal, by B. H. Hodgson, Esq.; Meteorological Ob- 
servations and Table 73 — 80 







Xin. Descriptions of new Shells. By Richard Brinsley Hinds, 
Esq., Surgeon R.N. (With a Plate.) , 81 

- XIV. On the spongeous origin of Moss Agates and other siliceous 
bodies. By J, S. Bowerbank, Esq,, F.G.S. (With three Plates-) 
{Concluded.) • 84 


XV. On some new Insects from Western Africa, By the Rev. F. 
W. Hope, F.R.S., F.L.S. (Continued.) 91 

XV r. A brief Account of two Peruvian Mummies in tlie Museum of 
the Devon and Cornwall Natural History Society. By P. F. Bellamy, 
Surgeon, of Plymouth 95 

XVII. On the characters of the British Violets. By Charles C. 

Babington, M.A., F.L.S. , F.G.S. , &c 

XVIII. Proposed Arrangement of the Echinodermata, particularly 
as regards the Crinoidea and a Subdivision of the Class Adelostella 
(Echinidce). By Thomas Austin, Esq., and Thomas Austin, Jun. ... 106 


XIX. Descriptions of Chalcidites discovered by C. Darwin, E?q., 
near Valparaiso. By Francis Walker, F.L.S 113 

XX. Short notice of a Botanical Trip to the Highlands of Scotland. 

By Professor J. H. Balfour, M.D 117 

XXI. Excerpta Zoological On Metamorphoses among Intestmal 
Worms. Communicated by W. Francis, Ph. D., A.L.S 118 

XXII. Description of a new species of Poa. By Richard Parnell, 
M.D., F.R.S.E., &c. (With a Plate.) ,.., 121 

XXIII. Information respecting Scientific Travellers 124 


New Booh : — Iconografia della Fauna Italica, hy C. L. Bonaparte, 

Prince of Canino. — Algse maris Mediterranei et Adriatici, obser- 

vationes in diagnosin specierum et dispositionem gcnerum, auctore 

J. G. Agardh 127—131 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society; Geological Society 131 — 153 

Plumatella repens\ Notes on the uses of some Madagascar Plants to 

the Natives; On the Nuclei of the Blood-corpuscles of the Verte- 
brata ; On the Structure of Fibrine; Discovery of a Chambered 
Univalve Fossil in the Eocene Tertiary of James River, Virginia, 



Locusta migrato- 
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XXIV. On the Life and Writings of J. P. E. Vaucher. By Al- 
rnoNSE DeCandolle 161 

XXV. On the Dotted Vessels of Ferns. By J. W. Griffith, M.D., 
F.L.S. (With a Plate.) 169 

XXVL The Birds of Ireland By Wm. Thompson, Esq,, Vice- 
Pres. Nat Hist. Society of Belfast. {Continued.) , 171 

XXVII. Observations on tlie Common Toad, and on its long Absti- 

^^ r 

nence from Food. By John Brown, Esq. 180 

XXVIII. On the varieties of Dryas octopetala. By Charles C. 
Babington, M,A., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c. (With a Plate.) 181 

XXIX. A Century of new Genera and Species of Orchidaceous 
Plants. Characterized by Professor Lindley .'.. 184 

XXX. HorcB Zoologicce. By Sir W. Jardine, Bart., F.R.S.E. & 
F.L.S., &c. (With. two Plates.) 186 


XXXI. Extracts from a Report on subjects connected with Afgha- 
nistan. By Dr. Griffith, F.L.S 190 

XXXII. Observations on the Rodenfia, By G. R. Waterhouse, 
Esq., Curator to the Zoological Society of London 197 


. XXXin. Description of a new species of Genetta, and of two spe- 
cies of Birds from Western Africa. By T. R. H. Thomson, Esq., R.N., 

Surgeon of the late African Expedition 203 

XXXIV. Information respecting Scientific Travellers 205 


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Proceedings of the Botanical Society of London j Zoological Society; 

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On the Results of Deep Dredging, by J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S. & L.S. ; 

Description of a new species of Thracia^ by C. B. Adams; Bii'ds 
of Kent; Meteorological Observations and Table 237 — 240 


XXXV. On the Life and Writings of J. P. E. Vaucher. By Al- 
rnoNSE DeCandolle. {Concluded.) 





XXXVI. On some hitherto unnoticed peculiarities in the Structure 
of the Capsule of PapaveracecB] and on the Nature' of the Stigma of 
CriicifercE. By J. W. Howell, Esq., M.R.CS... 248 

XXXVII. Descriptions of some new Genera and fifty unrecorded 
Species o^ Mammalia. By J. E. Gray, Esq., F.R.S. ...> 255 

XXXVIII. Excerpta Botanica, or abridged Extracts translated from 
the Foreign Journals, illustrative of, or connected with, the Botany of 
Great Britain. By W. A. Leighton, Esq., B.A., F.B.S.E., &c. 

On the Structure of the Nucleus of the genera Sphcerophoron 
and Lichina 267 

XXXIX. Descriptions of Chalcidifes discovered in Valdivia by C. 
Darwin, Esq. By Francis Walker, F.L.S , 271 

XL. The Crustacea of Ireland. By Wm. Thompson, Esq., Vice-Pres. 
Nat. Hist. Society of Belfast 274 


XLI. A Catalogue of Sicilian Plants; with some remarks on the 
Geography, Geology, and Vegetation of Sicily. By John Hogg, Esq., 
M.A., F.L.S., F.C.P.S., &c 287 

XLI I. Observations on a new Group, Genus, and Subgenus, of Fresh- 
water Confervse, with descriptions of Species mostly new. By Arthur 
Hill Hassall, Esq., M.R.C.S.L., Corresponding Member of the Dublin 
Natural History Society. {Continued.) ....•• 336 

XLIII. Observations on the Rodentia. By G. R, Waterhouse, 
Esq., Curator to the Zoological Society of London. (With a Plate.) 
(^Continued.) » 344 

XLIV, Information respecting Scientific Travellers 348 

Netv Books : — The 

M.D.— The 

British Flora, comprising the Phsenogamous Plants and the Ferns, 
by Sir W. J. Hooker, K.H., &c. — An Account of Askern and its 
Mineral Springs, together with a Sketch of the Natural History of 
the neighbourhood, by E. Lankester, M.D., F.L.S., &c.— Excur- 
cursions in and about Newfoundland during the years 1839 and 





Proceedings of the Microscopical Society ; Botanical Society of Lon- 
don ; Linnoean Society 358—363 


Filago Gallica, Linn. ; New British Carices ; Pus-like Globules of the 

Blood; Origin of Fibre — Structure of Fibrine and of False Mem- 
branes ; An Extract of a Letter addressed to a friend containing 
an account of Tortricides captured in the New Forest in the month 
of September 1841, by Capucina; National Encouragement of 
Science; Meteorological Observations and Table 363 — 3G8 




XLV, Notices of Fungi in the Herbarium of the British Museum. 

By the Rev. M. J. Berkeley, M.A., F.L.S. (With Four Plates.) ... 3G9 

XLVI. Observations on a new Group, Genus, and Subgenus, of 
Freshwater Confervse, with descriptions of Species mostly new. By 
Arthur Hill Hassall, Esq., M.R.C.S.L., Corresponding Member of 
the Dublin Natural History Society. (Concluded.)..*,. 385 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society; Linneean Society ......... 395 — 418 

Entomology in America; Obituary— Daniel Cooper, Esq 418, 419 

Index 420 


* fc*^ 

^ ^ 


- i 




Organic Structure in Moss Agates. 

* » * 


IV. Skulls of Peruvian Mummies. 

V. Poa Balfourii — Structure of Ferns. 

VL New Shells. 

VII. British Violets- — Dryas octopetala. 

VIII. Jaws of Rodents. 

jTj ^New Fungi. 


XIII. Nectarinia Stangeri*. 

XIV. Nectarinia chloropygia. 

* The two birds represented are described at page 186, but the figures 
were not referred to. • 


Page 202, foot note, ll lines from bottom, for * Sc. leiicogen]/8,* read * Sc. erythrogenys.* 
lb. 6 lines from bottom, for ' white,* read * red.' 
Page 344, 12 lines from bottom, for 'exists,' read 'exist.* 


I 4^<iy NclI fiKil.Vol Iv.J 






. r 

V.V.Btlloc^rii^ rif^' 

.rHtiSirt hfh 


~ Mr. P. F. Bellamy on two PeruviaH Mummies. 95 

antennis atris, thorace fere hexagono angulis anticis rotundatis, 
posticis abrupte truncatis, disco subconvexo purictato, lateribus 
parurri depressis et marginatis, elytris sulcato-punctatis, quatuor 
maculis rubro-miniatis insignitis corpore pedibusque nigris. 
The above insect was lately received from the Ashantee country, 
and was sent to me by Capt. Parry of Cheltenham for description. 

From the numter of rare species already described, some faint idea 
may be formed of the richness of African entomology. I regret to 
add that several others of equal rarity are passed by, as being too 
mutilated for description. Various new types of form hav6 also lately 
reached me from the country of the Asliantees as well as the Gold 
Coast ; the most remarkable of them at a future time I propose to 
publish. • 


August 25, 1842. ' 

XVI. — A brief Acdbunt of two Peruvian Mummies in the 
Museum of the Devon and Cornwall t^atiiral History Society, 
By P. F. Bellamy, Surgeon, of Plymouth*. 

[With a Plate.] 


THESfi interesting relics were broilglit i6 Englaiid by Captairl 
Blanckley of the Royal Navy, who in the year 1838 presented 
thenl to the! Society tinder the incorrect denomination of Pe- 
fuvian Mummies. Of the exact locality whence they were 
procured I am at present unable to furnish information ; but 
on presenting them, Capt. Blanckley stated to ine in conver- 
sation, that he exhumed them himself from an elevated tract 
of land in the mountainous district of Peru, but at a consider- 
able distance from the lake Titicaca. He also informed iiie 
that such remains were very abundant there, that they were 
found very near the surface, the light sandy soil having beert 
removed by the wind, so as to expose many of theiri (a cir- 
cumstance which led to their discovery), and that each wa^ 
observed to have aii upright posture in the soil, and to have 
- under it a piece of matting f . ^ 

Each mummy (for so, in order to avoid a confusion of terms, 
I will continue to call them,) presented the appearance of a 
rudely shaped oval bundle, secured by nunierous lashings of a 
coarse rope, made of a kind of flag or rush, passed two or three 

* Read to the Zoological Section of the British Association, Aug. 3, 1841. 

f One of the specimens was packed in a tin case with some of the sand 
taken from the spot; it is impregnated with marine salts to such an extent 
as to impart to the whole a strong smell somewhat resemhling iodine ; so 
that there is reason to believe that the preservation of the remains is acci- 
dental, and principally attributable to the presence of these extraneous anti- 

96 Mr. P. F. Bellamy on two Peruvian Mummies, 

times round the neck, and then in a variety of directions over 
the trunk, and knotted together at each intersection so as to 
form a network with broad interspaces ; every part but the 
head being thus firmly compressed. The first and principal 
envelope proved to be an article of dress, made of a scarlet- 
coloured stout cloth, consisting of a single piece, sewn toge- 
ther up the sides, and w^ith a hole for the head and each arm 5 
thus resembling a loose frock without sleeves, and not much 
unlike a ponsha or mantle. The one preserved is of capacious 
size, and was no doubt at one time worn by an adult, perhaps 
the father of the deceased. As a wrapper for the dead, a por- 
tion of it was drawn smooth over the head and face, then al- 
lowed to fall in large irregular folds over the body, and the 
superfluous portion folded up at the feet. The second and 
innermost envelope consisted in one of a thin coarse cotton, 
and in the other of a piece of woollen cloth wTapped rudely 
round the body, but, like the former, drawn smooth over the 
head and face. Between the two wrappers were found the 
model of a raft or catamaran, two small bags made of a neatly 
striped cloth, filled with ears of an undescribed variety of In- 
dian corn, and two small earthen pots, one of which probably 
at the time of deposit contained a little water, and the other 
it is not unlikely was intended for a cooking utensil. Such 
were the models found in conjunction with these remains ; but 
with others which Captain Blanckley examined on the spot, 
they were of various descriptions, and the earthen vessels of 
different patterns : thus we have presented by him three flat 
dishes or baskets of neat wicker-work ; a fishing line with a 
float made of reeds matted together, and with a small black 
oval-shaped pebble for a weight 5 a very rudely made fishing 
basket^ the half of a small gourd, probably intended for a 
lamp ; and as many as nine sorts of earthen vessels, some of 
which are neatly painted. 

Here we may remark, that two of the p'ots and two of the 
bags contain leaves of one of the Musacecp ; and that in two 
or three others Capt. Blanckley found a quantity of a blackish 
powder, and lying loosely not far from one of the mummies 
he presented, a piece of sugar-cane about 18 inches long. 

By a coincidence, the mummies under our immediate no- 
tice are the remains of children, one of which was not more 
than a few months old, and the other could not be much more 
than one year ; and judging from their relative size and figure, 
male and female. PI. IV. figs. 1 and 3. 

Of the first examined all the sofl parts had mouldered into 
dust, and nothing but the bones and a small portion of hair 

remained. In the other the skin was hard and shriveled, the 

Mr, P. F. Bellamy on two Peruvian Mummies, '" 97 

hair black and silky, but both much discoloured by the putre- 
factive process, and the soft tissues melted down to a brown- 
coloured unctuous kind of matter, by which means the face 
was so distorted that not a feature was discoverable. This one 
however displayed the manner in which the body was ar- 
ranged for interment. 

The principal object appears to have been to give to it a 
sitting or crouching attitude ; for this purpose the thighs were 
pressed up against the abdomen and the legs flexed upon 
them, and then secured by a bandage made to encircle the 
trunk and the bent limbs two or three times. In addition to 
this, the arms were brought across the body and tied together 
at the wrists by a piece of cord, and the head was pressed 
down upon the chest so as to throw the occiput uppermost. 

From each mummy I selected the bones of the skull, and 
by a little mechanical contrivance restored them to their na- 
tural position. 

On examining these skulls it w^ill be found that the face is 
short and projecting, the chin square and protruding, the ma- 
lar bones large and prominent, the nostrils large and open, 
the orbits large and squared, and the orbital margins thick 
and rounded; but the crania, from the singularity of their 
form, deserve the most marked attention : the frontal bone is 
narrow, recedes at once from the superciliary ridges, and pre- 
sents a flattened aspect as far as the coronal suture ; the pa- 
rietal bones rise for about two-thirds of their length till they 
reach the vertex, at which point they suddenly round off to 
form the occiput ; and the occipital bone, which is irregularly 
flattened, forms principally the under part of the skull, only a 

small portion of it occupying the back of the head, and that 

being turned up rather suddenly to meet the parietal bones. 
Thus it will be observed that the whole skull is thrown back, 
has a remarkably large posterior development, and is of an 
ovoid form, with its long axis from before to behind. 

Corresponding with this configuration, all the large bones 
of the skull are considerably elongated ; and this will be bet- 
ter displayed by contrasting them with those of an infant of 
the Caucasian variety, whose cranium is of the ordinary glo- 
bular figure ; thus the frontal bone, measured from its junc- 
tion with the nasal to its line of junction with the parietal, is 
in the Caucasian 4 inches, in the Peruvian 4 ^ inches ; the pa- 
rietal, from the extremity of the angle in the temporal fossa to 
the postero-superior angle in the Caucasian, is 5| inches, whilst 
in the Peruvian it is 6^ inches ; and the occipital, from its 
junction with the sphenoid to the apex of the lambdoidal suture 

in the Caucasian, measures 5 inches, and in the Peruvian 5f 
Ann, §• Maff, iV. Hist, Vol, x. • H 

98 Mr. P? F. Bellamy on two Peruvian Mummies. 


inches. In making these measurements J have chosen the 
skull of the elder mummy, because its form is not so exagge- 
rated as in the younger, in which the bones, from the greater 
projection of the occiput, are comparatively longer. 

It will also be found, that even if the circumference of the 
two skulls be the same by measurement in a transverse direc- 
tion over the vertex from one occipital condyle to the other, the 
Peruvian through its long axis is 5| inches, whilst that of the 
Caucasian is but 4f inches. The position of the foramen mag- 
i}um too is remarkable, for it will be found to be considerably 
anterior to the centre of gravity ; thus, from the centre of the 

dyle of the occipital bone to the alveoli of the front 


the distance is but 3 inches, whilst from the same point to the 
line described by the greatest posterior projection it is 3| 
inches ^ nor is the facial angle less remarkably : iji one it does 
ijot excepd 85°, anjj i^ the other it is as little as 82° ; being 

the former 5°, and in the latter 8° less than in the C 
sian pf the same age. 

Here I will venture to call the attention of the Sectign to 
the formation of the occipital bone, for in each skull the same 
peculiarity exists ; th^t is, in the addition of a fifth rudimen- 
tary portipu pf the same figure, arjd occupying the game po- 
sition in both, viz, between the occipital portion of the bone 
commonly so called, and the parietal bones, but below the 
lambdoidal suture ; in this particular differing essentially from 
the adventitious os triquetrum sometimes found. In the 
younger of the two individuals it is, like the other rudiments, 
distinct and separate (PL IV. fig. 2.) ; whilst in the elder, in 
which the ossific process is more advanced, the junction of it 
with the occipital portion is nearly complete, the suture only 
remaining open at either extremity for little more than an 
inch, but traceable through its entire length. Does this exist 
by a strange coincidence as an anomaly of structure, or is it 

to be considered as a normal formation peculiar to this race 
of being 

. It will be manifest from the general contour of these skulls 
that they are allied to those in the Museum of the Col- 
lege of Surgeons in London, denominated Titicacans. Those 
adult skulls are very generally considered to be distorted by 
the effects of pressure ; but in opposition to this opinion Dr. 
Graves has stated*, that ^f a careful examination of them has 
convinced him that their peculiar shape cannot be owing to 
artificial pressure f and to corroborate this view, we may re- 
mark that the peculiarities are as great in the child as in 
the. adult, and indeed more in the younger than in the elder 

^ Dublin Journal of Med. and Chem. Sciences, N9. 15. 



Mr. P. F. Bellamy on twQ Peruvian Mummies, 99 

of the two specimens now produced : and the position is con- 
siderably strengthened by the great relative length of the large 
bones of the cranium ^ by the direction of the plane of the oc- 
cipital bone, which is not forced upwards, but occupies a place 
in the under jDart of the skull \ by the further absence of marks 
of pressure, there being no elevation of the vertex nor pro- 
jection of either side ; and by the fact of there being no instru- 
ment nor mechanical contrivance suited to produce such an 
alteration of form (as these skulls present) found in connexion 
with them *. 

The remarkably flattened forehead, indicative of the very 
small size of the anterior lobes of the brain, is worthy of re- 
mark : and it will be for phrenologists to reconcile this fact 
with those now recorded, which bespeak for this people a tole- 
rably advanced state of civilization : they were manufacturers 
and agriculturists ; bestowed their dead with peculiar care, 
paying particular attention to their imaginary wants, and had 
certain superstitious notions connected with their departure 
to some distant region. Are these marks of intellect the re- 
sult of opginal powers of invention, or are they the result of 
intercourse with other and more civilized people ? 

yhis peculiar race were in all probability the aborigines of 
the country ; an(J il: is possible that these mummies may b.e 
the relics of some of the last of the Titicacgns, deposited after 
the invasion of the country by those enlightened conquerors, 

who subdued them, not by the sword, but by moral agencies, 
and imparted to them a knowledge of their arts and rites and 
superstitions. But it will be for the ethnologist to show how 
far the facts now stated are found to accord with the manners, 
customs and attainments of eastern nations j and to say to 
what people the first emigrants to this part of the western 
shores of America belonged. Failing in this however, it will, 
J think, be fair to attribute to the indigenae a mental capacity 
equal to originate such inventions, and to arrive at such at- 
tainments as the specimens before us manfest. ^ 

It is probable that the extinction of this once typical variety 
of the human family was produced gradually by an intermix- 
ture of blood with those who afterwards became the lords of 
the soil, and whose line of princes, untainted by such inter- 
course, formed the Incas dynasty so remarkable in the history 
of Peru. 

Lastly, I would suggest that the adult skulls of Titicacans 
before alluded to are of two kinds, the one possessing all the 
peculiarities of the race in its unalloyed form — the true Titi- 
ckcan I and the other being of a spurious character, resulting 



100 Mr. C. C. Babington on the British Violets, 

from the union of the indigenae with the settlers of Asiatic 
origin, the companions of Manco Capac of traditionary fame. • 
Accordingly in the former we observe the receding forehead, 
the elongated cranium, and the horizontally-placed occipital 
bone : and in the latter a modified form, in which, combined 
with the receding forehead and elongated cranium, there is an 
elevated vertex and flattened occiput, formed principally by 
an altered position of the occipital bone ; which, instead of 
lying on a plane with the horizon, rises in a sloping direction 
upwards and backwards to meet the parietal bones. 

A^o^e.— After the reading of this paper, Prof, Owen stated that lie 
entertained an opinion that their peculiar form was given to them by 
pressure, such as might be applied by a bandage passed round the 
head; and he suggested that a short fillet (about 16 inches long) 
found with the younger of the two mummies might have been em- 
ployed for this purpose. This bandage, however, I consider was used 
to secure the lower extremities to the trunk, and on consideration I 
am disposed to maintain the same opinion as I have stated above : 
1st, because this fillet is but \~ inch wide, whereas the flattened por- 
tion of the skull is more than 3 inches, extending over the os frontis 
from immediately above the superciliary ridges to an inch beyond 
the coronal suture, so as to involve the anterior portion of the pa- 
rietal bones ; 2nd, the line of depression in these skulls has a direc- 
tion over the middle of the os occipitis, and then' over the anterior 
third of the parietal bones, first where the angle dips down between 
the frontal temporal bones, and then immediately behind the coronal 
suture, and not at all over the os frontis ; 3rd, because, if pressure 
had been used in this direction, it would have contracted the great 
fontanelle, of which there is no mark whatever ; indeed in the elder 
of the two, in which the depressed line is most visible, the fontanelle 
is most open ; and lastly, if a circular bandage had been applied, it 
would have given a circular form to that portion at least compressed 
by it ; whereas however a transverse section, taken by measurement, 
shows that the skulls have a compressed pyriform figure, the larger 
extremity representing the flattened and upper surface, and the 
smaller corresponding with the contracted aspect of the occipital 
bone. • 


XVII. — On the characters of the British Violets, By Charles 

C. Babington, M.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c. 

[With a Plate.] 

The remarkable difference which exists between the value of 
characters in different orders of plants, and sometimes even in 
genera, — the form or structure of any particular organ being 
of generic value in one order, specific in another, and some- 
times not even' sufficiently constant to distinguish varieties in 

a third, — n^ust always give considerable interest to an investi-